Борьба с коррупцией: первые шаги, результаты и задачи на перспективу

Нигматилла Йулдошев
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Йулдошев, Н. 2021. Борьба с коррупцией: первые шаги, результаты и задачи на перспективу. Антикоррупционный дайджест Узбекистана. 1, 1 (дек. 2021), 16–20. DOI:https://doi.org/10.47689/uacd-vol1-iss1-pp16-20.

Биография автора

Нигматилла Йулдошев, Генеральный прокурор Республики Узбекистан

Генеральный прокурор Республики Узбекистан, Государственный советник юстиции 3 класса

As noted in the interview of the Head of our state on August 17 to the newspaper "Yangi O’zbekiston", the country, which entered the period of radical reforms in subsequent years, is consistently fighting against the developmental flaw - corruption.

Today, strengthening public control, raising the legal culture of the population and expanding its participation in the life of the state and society is an important factor in curbing corruption.

Indeed, the work begun on organizing an effective fight against corruption and completely eradicating this vice is of historical importance. In particular, at the initial stage, the main attention was paid to the issues of improving the legal framework in accordance with international requirements, ensuring democratization and transparency of public administration. As a result, the activity of the public and the media is sharply increasing, the feeling of intolerance towards corruption in our society is strengthening.

The work carried out to combat corruption is receiving recognition from the international community and the role of Uzbekistan in international ratings and indexes in this direction is increasing. In particular, at the end of 2021, the Priority of Law index of the World Justice project, published in October of this year, Uzbekistan rose by 14 positions and became one of the countries that showed the best results among 139 states.

Undoubtedly, the prosecution bodies also make their worthy contribution to ensuring the rule of law in the life of the state and society and the formation of an intolerant attitude towards corruption.

At first, in the direction of monitoring the implementation of legislation  over three years, about 540 thousand documents of prosecutor's supervision were applied in inspections, more than 63 thousand submissions were made to the relevant authorities, more than 565 thousand citizens were restored to their rights.

More than 114 thousand persons who violated the requirements of the law were brought to disciplinary and administrative responsibility, more than 8 thousand criminal cases were initiated on the facts of gross violations of the law.

In this direction, constant cooperation has been established with about 50 supervisory bodies authorized to exercise state control in relevant areas. In particular, over the past two years, theft worth more than 2.5 trillion soums has been revealed at events held jointly with regulatory authorities.

Of course, the measures taken to eliminate such violations of the law revealed as a result of supervisory measures are at the same time important in preventing and suppressing corruption.

There is no longer a guarantee that any violation to which they did not react, did not take appropriate measures in relation to the perpetrators, regardless of the consequences and scale, would not create conditions for further corruption, would not cause it.

Secondly, corruption offenses are detected in a timely manner, systematic work is carried out to identify, suppress, eliminate their consequences, as well as possible causes and conditions.

In this direction, law enforcement agencies are mobilizing all forces and capabilities to implement the principle "The rule of law, punishment for a crime is inevitable." In particular, over the past three years, the criminal acts of more than 5 thousand officials have been disclosed and the issues of their responsibility have been resolved. Damage in the amount of 2.7 trillion sum inflicted on the interests of the state and society as a result of crimes of officials for the specified period was recovered during the investigation.

As a result of measures taken by the Department for Combating Economic Crimes under the General Prosecutor's Office to suppress corruption and the shadow economy, over the past three years facts of abuse of official powers in relation to officials of this category have been revealed.

More than 7 thousand crimes have been solved. About 2 thousand cases of receiving and mediation in bribery were revealed, the inevitability of punishment for the perpetrators was ensured.

845 crimes related to illegal sale of land areas and their allotment were revealed, illegal sale of almost 4 thousand hectares of land areas was prevented.

Also, the General Prosecutor's Office carried out an analysis of corruption crimes committed in areas with a high level of corruption risk and the reasons for their occurrence and measures are being taken to eliminate them.

 In particular, over the past three years in the areas of higher education, land allocation, health care, construction, banking, finance and other areas where corruption is observed, critical discussions were held with the participation of representatives of the Senate and the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis, government members, leaders and responsible employees of the relevant ministries and departments, law enforcement agencies.

As a logical continuation of this work, at the meetings of the National Council for Combating Corruption and the collegiums of the relevant ministries, corruption crimes committed in the system of ministries of preschool education, public education, culture, employment and labor relations, support of the mahalla and family, transport, water management, housing and communal services were discussed.

Based on the results of inspections of the implementation of legislation over the past three years, more than 50 proposals have been developed aimed at ensuring the rule of law and eliminating corruption-causing factors. In particular, following the analysis of the activities of the Construction Supervision Inspectorate, the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan adopted Resolution No. PP-4586 dated February 5, 2020 "On measures to radically improve the quality of construction and installation works and improve the control system in construction."

It should be noted that in April of this year, 62% of the survey participants conducted by the Republican Center for the Study of Public Opinion “Ijtimoiy fikr”, assessed the tightening of criminal penalties as one of the most effective measures in the fight against corruption. In this regard, the General Prosecutor's Office, based on the wide public opinion and experience of foreign countries, prepared and submitted to the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan a draft law “On Amendments and Additions to the Criminal Code and the Criminal Procedure Code of the Republic of Uzbekistan, aimed at strengthening measures responsibility for corruption crimes ”.

In addition, in cooperation with the UN Development Program project in the ministries of construction, higher and secondary specialized education, health care, public education, Tashkent city administration, Tashkent region, Mirzo-Ulugbek and Buka districts, as well as in the companies Uzbekneftegaz and Uzkimyosanoat the phased implementation of the anti-corruption compliance control system is underway.

Thirdly, special attention is paid to raising the legal awareness and legal culture of the population, the formation of an intolerant attitude towards corruption in society. Over the past period of this year alone, more than 6 thousand events were held in the direction of combating corruption, including 2,160 seminars, conferences and round tables, 1,220 speeches were made in the media.

Also, the General Prosecutor's Office, together with the Anti-Corruption Agency, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Agency for Youth Affairs, have  developed and are aimed at implementing the “Action Plan for the Formation of an Active Worldview and a Strong Civil View of the Fight against Corruption among Youth”. In accordance with this plan, in order to increase the legal literacy of young people, to form their intolerant attitude towards corruption, high-level legal competitions are held among students of secondary schools on such topics as “Corruption is a developmental flaw”, “We are against corruption”.

In addition, the “Comprehensive Action Plan for Legal Education of Youth in the Field of Anti-Corruption” is being implemented, developed jointly with ministries and departments in accordance with the state anti-corruption program for 2021-2022. In particular, over the past period of this year, the General Prosecutor's Office held campaigning events in 85 educational institutions aimed at increasing the knowledge of young people about combating corruption.

Fourthly, in the field of combating corruption, effective cooperation is carried out with foreign states and international organizations. In particular, over the past three years, the General Prosecutor's Office has signed more than 10 bilateral and multilateral agreements and treaties on international cooperation in the field of fight against crime, including in the field of combating corruption.

For example, in 2019, memorandums of cooperation were signed between the National Crime Agency of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Anti-Corruption and Civil Rights Commission of the Republic of Korea.

This year, during the visits of the Chairman of the Investigative Committee and the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation, agreements on cooperation between the General Prosecutor's Office of the Republic of Uzbekistan and cooperation programs for subsequent years were approved.

Also, the General Prosecutor's Office, in order to further strengthen cooperation in the field of combating corruption, holds international conferences and their active participation in such events is observed. In particular, under the chairmanship of Uzbekistan at a high level, the eighteenth meeting of the Prosecutors General of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization member states was held in 2020 on the topic "Modern mechanisms and practices to combat and prevent corruption."

On November 1, 2021, at the first meeting of the Prosecutors General of the Turkic-speaking states in Baku, the Prosecutor General of the Republic of Uzbekistan made a report on the topic “The modern strategy of Uzbekistan in the fight against terrorism, corruption, drug trafficking, human trafficking and other manifestations of organized crime”.

In addition, in the field of combating corruption, large-scale work is underway to strengthen mutually beneficial relations with international organizations, including the UNODC, UNDP, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, OSCE, SCO and others.

Fifth, training potential personnel in the field of combating corruption has become one of the priority tasks of the Academy of the General Prosecutor's Office. In 2019, the Academy of the Prosecutor General's Office opened a special direction of the master's program “Combating Corruption.” Today, the Academy is establishing close cooperation with about 60 reputable organizations around the world, introducing training in a completely new system that combines theory and practice. So, this year, about 400 employees more than 30 ministries and departments responsible for combating corruption and the compliance control system underwent advanced training courses with the participation of foreign experts on the topic “Ensuring the organization of effective departmental anti-corruption measures”.

As noted above, over the past period, as a result of initiatives and ideas, practical efforts of the Head of our state, a lot of work has been done to eradicate this vice.

In turn, the Head of our state noted that no matter how hard the law enforcement agencies try in the fight against corruption, until our people become intolerant of this disgusting vice, establish effective public control, we will not be able to organize an effective fight against this scourge. This flaw must be seriously combated not only by law enforcement agencies, but also by every member of our society.

 

Indeed, even in many stable and developed countries of the world, the general public is a decisive factor in the fight against corruption. The prosecutor's office is ready for close cooperation with state and non-state structures, providing them with practical assistance.

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